Remembering “Petite Fleur” : Sidney Bechet, Andrea Motis, and the remarkable Municipal School of Music in Barcelona

5 Dec
One version of the Sant Andreu Jazz Band in Barcelona. Photo by Joan Chamorro.

I woke up with the tune “Petite Fleur” stuck in my head. Later I had a chance to look into it on the world wide web (particularly the musically remarkable side of YouTube).

All this finally led to Joan Chamorro at the Municipal School of Music of Sant Andreu in Barcelona, whose graduates include the brilliant 24-year-old Andrea Motis (sax, trumpet, voice), her younger sister Carla (guitar), and Èlia Bastida (sax, voice, and especially violin — “tributo al gran violinista Stéphane Grappelli”).

Petite Fleur and Sidney Bechet

The good enough Wikipedia entry on “Petite Fleur” is one beginning. The tune is “an instrumental written by Sidney Bechet and recorded by him in January 1952 … In 1959 it was an international hit as a clarinet solo by Monty Sunshine with Chris Barber’s Jazz Band … peaked at No. 5 on the US Hot 100 and No. 4 in the UK charts.”

I remember the Monty Sunshine recording. (I am that old.) Somewhat later, I learned a little about Sidney Bechet. He began as a clarinet player but added a “straight” soprano saxophone to his act in his early 20s. He grew up in a musical family in early 20th century New Orleans, where he learned to play several other instruments more casually.

According to Scott Yanow at : “Sidney Bechet was the first important jazz soloist on records in history (beating Louis Armstrong by a few months).” In his mature incarnation he played the soprano saxophone with “a wide vibrato that listeners either loved or hated.” I find his sound suitably distinctive and intriguing, without exactly wanting jazz today to emulate it.

Bechet was also a “Creole of color” in New Orleans, with a surname and probably more that stretched back to the 18th century French American empire in old Louisiana. I had been dimly aware that his musical career had connections with modern France as well. But I knew no details until my current pursuit of “Petite Fleur.”

After early beginnings as a teenage clarinetist in New Orleans, Sidney Bechet first went to Europe with Will Marion Cook’s Syncopated Orchestra (out of New York City) in 1919. He returned to the United States where he began his recording career in 1923.

“Sidney Bechet (1897-1959) at Cabaret Chez Florence, Paris, in 1928 … Courtesy of the William Ransom Hogan Jazz Archive at Tulane University.”

Then he was back in Europe in 1925 — with “other members of the Revue Nègre, including Josephine Baker.” (See what strikes me as the very good short Wikipedia biography.) In 1928 he led a “small band at Chez Bricktop in Montmartre, Paris.”

He was back in the USA by the early 1930s, where he performed and recorded over the next two decades. But by the late 1940s the postwar bebop revolution had begun to transform the American universe. The older Bechet found it harder to get work.

As explained by Wikipedia : “He believed that the jazz scene in the United States had little left to offer him … In 1950 he moved to France, after his performance as a soloist at the Paris Jazz Fair caused a surge in his popularity in that country, where he easily found well-paid work.”

It was in his new home in France that Sidney Bechet wrote “Petite Fleur,” which he first recorded in January 1952.

The last years of his career in his new country (and at least one of his old-world homelands) were a great success, musically and financially. Like too many practitioners of his craft, he nonetheless died too early “in Garches, near Paris, of lung cancer on May 14, 1959, his 62nd birthday.”

Sidney Bechet and Sidney Chambers : a footnote

As one sign of the broadly “European” if not exactly “American” popularity Bechet enjoyed in his late career (with something of a holdover even today), the Anglican clerical hero of the 2014–2018 “British ITV detective drama” Grantchester — set in the English countryside of the 1950s — recurrently plays Sidney Bechet records, to the dismay of some around him.

(And note that “Sidney Chambers,” the hero in question, finally leaves the series by marrying a visiting African American lady, and moving to the USA!)

Joan Chamorro, Andrea Motis, and the Sant Andreu Jazz Band in Barcelona today : An introduction

Andrea Motis, 16, plays Petite Fleur, 2011.

Sixty years after Sidney Bechet’s death in 1959, my world-wide-web pursuit of “Petite Fleur” soon enough led to a 2011 performance of his 1952 classic by a 16-year-old girl from Barcelona — in Catalonia, which may or may not also want to be in Spain. See “Petite Fleur — Andrea Motis, Joan Chamorro & Josep Traver” (on YouTube, like all the other music here).

From this point on my story can be pursued in several directions. And this installment could just be the first of at least two takes on the larger subject. It focuses on the remarkable career of Ms Andrea Motis, who is now 24 years old, and still apparently living in Barcelona (through all the recent political struggles there and in Spain at large).

Archie Shepp records Petite Fleur for album Deja vu, 2001.

Two quick background notes up front : First, before leaving Sidney Bechet’s “Petite Fleur” altogether, another remarkable more recent YouTube performance of the tune (much different from the 1959 Monty Sunshine clarinet hit), is a 2001 tenor sax recording by the free jazz pioneer Archie Shepp (who was born in Florida in 1937 and grew up in Philadelphia).

Second, Joan Chamorro is a teacher in his late 50s whose work at Barcelona’s Municipal School of Music of Sant Andreu has developed and promoted such awesome young musicians as Andrea Motis. He has been called a “musician, music educator and band leader, creator and leader of the successful youth band Sant Andreu Jazz Band … coordinator of a network of musicians and … other people who … work … with SAJB … jazz musician who plays bass, baritone, tenor, alto and soprano saxophone, clarinet, bass clarinet, flute, cornet and double bass.”

Andrea Motis so far seems the most widely known and accomplished younger musician to have evolved through Joan Chamorro’s Sant Andreu Jazz Band and related networks. There are now such things as the Andrea Motis & Joan Chamorro Quintet (in which Mr. Chamorro plays string bass) and the Motis Chamorro Big Band (where he also performs on baritone saxophone).

Joan Chamorro backstage. Photo by Èlia Bastida.

On YouTube the musical growth of Andrea Motis can be traced from a charmingly innocent 16-year-old who performs an enchanting version of Sidney Bechet’s “Petite Fleur” on a “curved” soprano saxophone, in Barcelona in 2011, to a more worldly 24-year-old who sings and plays trumpet on the almost mournful “Dança da solidão” (in English “Dance of Loneliness,” by the Brazilian singer–songwriter Paulinho da Viola) in Zurich, Switzerland in 2019.

As Wikipedia explains, along with her saxophone and trumpet playing, Ms Motis “sings in Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese and English.” (The lyric to “Dança da solidão is in Portuguese.) I am most interested in her saxophone playing. But I’m intrigued that her combination of saxophone and trumpet has a precedent, in the happily long-lived career of the American jazz great Benny Carter — born in Harlem, New York City 1907 and died in Los Angeles 2003.

Andrea Motis at the Nice Jazz Festival 2016.

(Also intriguingly enough, in 2010 the then 79-year-old American alto saxophone disciple of the still unsurpassed Charlie Parker, Phil Woods, was in Catalonia to perform an arrangement of his Benny Carter tribute tune, “My Man Benny” with the Barcelona Jazz Orchestra. On baritone sax in the Orchestra was Andrea Motis’s early teacher and later bass player, Joan Chamorro.)

Andrea Motis’s saxophone playing (soprano and alto) shows its power early on with her 16-year-old “Petite Fleur” in 2011. She has listened hard to the Sidney Bechet recordings, and offers an updated reading of his sound with the side that some listeners hated turned off. She takes the old New Orleans Bechet (1910–1940 say) in somewhat new directions, without going as far into “modern jazz” (1940–1970) as Archie Shepp on his striking 2001 “Petite Fleur” recording.

Ms. Motis’s exact style of saxophone playing can vary as well with the history of the tunes she takes up. More than one YouTube comment writer on her entrancing alto sax performance of the Duke Ellington (and Carl Sigman) tune,“All Too Soon,” has noted similarities with the longtime alto sax master of the Ellington band, Johnny Hodges.

(And there is a beautiful Johnny Hodges recording of “All Too Soon” that Andrea Motis has almost certainly listened to. A purist might nonetheless want to point out that in the original Ellington band version of 1940 the melody is played by a muted trombone, and the only saxophone solo is by Ben Webster on tenor.)

There are at least two Andrea Motis performances of “All Too Soon” on YouTube, and on one of them she plays with the contemporary American alto sax master Jesse Davis (born in New Orleans in 1965). It is no accident that Ms Motis — along with Joan Chamorro and the Barcelona guitarist Josep Traver — has also played with Scott Hamilton (born in Providence, Rhode Island in 1954) : a “swinging tenor saxophonist” who “first emerged in the ’70s playing a style that hearkened back to the pre-bebop sound of artists like Ben Webster.”

Barcelona Blues Today : A too hasty initial assessment

Along with the New Orleans that invented Sidney Bechet, one side of the Motis-Chamorro-Sant Andreu Jazz Band inspiration in the early 21st century is the American “mainstream” or “swing jazz” era of the 1930s and 1940s.

Another is the French small-group jazz of the same era perfected by the guitarist Django Reinhardt and the violinist Stéphane Grappelli.

Yet another is the Afro-Brazilian music first identified with Antonio Carlos Jobim and bossa nova in the 1960s.

Still another is the American jazz of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s “that drew inspiration from gospel music and blues.”

Or at least that’s how an initial enthusiastic burst of YouTube listening has struck me, more or less. And (driven by an escalating sense that this first installment of “Barcelona Blues Today” must end soon), here are half a dozen tunes on YouTube that broadly illustrate my almost certainly too hasty initial assessment :

Josep Traver, Andrea Motis, and Joan Chamorro do “Tenderly” at the Festival Django Reinhardt, Samois-sur-Seine, France.

The best place to end this introduction to Andrea Motis, Joan Chamorro, and their many other friends is a more-than-an-hour-long YouTube video from just this past late September 2019.

It presents Andrea (singing and on trumpet), Joan (Chamorro, on bass), the guitarist Josep Traver, Andrea’s younger sister Carla also on guitar, Anastasia Ivanova (trombone and scat singing), an excellent young male tenor sax player, Joan Marti, and various other young musicians (including Elia Bastida as a vocalist), wandering in and out of the space in front of a bar on an early fall afternoon in the Sant Andreu neighbourhood of Barcelona.

They are playing at “el festival de jazz de sant Andreu, como cada año, el bar Colombia.” They are having serious fun, returning to a jazz that is improvisational with much joyful spontaneity, but also played within a less complex theoretical framework that is almost certainly more listenable for a broader audience, than much of what the modern jazz of 1940–1970 has left us.

Andrea Motis (r) and Elia Bastida (l) sing Ain’t She Sweet outside the Bar Colombia in the Sant Andreu neighbourhood of Barcelona, late September 2019. With Joan Chamorro playing bass behind them.

Even for those of us who think Charlie Parker is still the absolute top and bebop still the hardest and best jazz to play — and listen to.

With Europe and America at the 70th NATO summit clouding my mind, I find it o-so-warmly reassuring to see how some of the seriously great things the USA has given the universe are being cultivated in 2019 in Catalonia. (Especially reassuring after George Orwell’s grim Homage to Catalonia in 1938.)

Today Catalonia may or may not really want to be a part of Spain. Not altogether unlike Quebec in Canada, Canadians are bound to think. As the early snow rises around us in this year of climate change, crazy politics, and the 2-faced nice guy Justin Trudeau, still much admired on the street where I live …

Toronto, Canada. December 5, 2019.

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Democracy is what finally makes America great (& Canada too etc, etc)

11 Jun

What does talk about democracy have to do with music and the arts — to say nothing of “REDISCOVERING MODERN JAZZ 1940–1970″?

For a starter try Woody Herman’s version of Aaron Copland’s 1942 classic, “Fanfare For The Common Man … An Anthem For The American Century.”

For the main course, according to a recent report on the CBC News site, “Democracy is in retreat” everywhere. An “annual ranking of 209 nations and territories, prepared by the US-based democracy watchdog Freedom House, recorded an overall decline in global freedom for the 13th straight year.”

In the June 6, 2019 issue of The New York Review of Books, the British historian currently at Columbia University in New York, Adam Tooze, pondered a similar theme in “Democracy and Its Discontents” — a review of four recent books with such ominous titles as The People vs. Democracy, How Democracies Die, The Road to Unfreedom, and How Democracy Ends.

This spring has also revived the aggressively right-wing American concept urged by Donald Trump’s former Federal Reserve nominee Stephen Moore : “Capitalism is a lot more important than democracy.”

“Temporal Infrastructure,” 2019 — by Toronto artist Michael Seward.

(And yet when the French aristocrat Alexis de Tocqueville visited and wrote about the early United States he admired — the side of the experiment that would soon fight a civil war to at least start to end African American slavery — he called his work Democracy in America [v1, 1835 ; v2, 1840]. “Capitalism” [or Das Kapital] was something the German intellectual Karl Marx would later criticize, researching and writing as a political refugee in London, England [v1, 1867, and then posthumously from Marx’s notes by Friedrich Engels, son of “an owner of large textile factories in Salford, England and … Barmen, Prussia,” v2, 1885 ; v3, 1894].)

No real-world democracy will ever be perfect

From the Norman Rockwell painting, 1958.

On one side of my own political consciousness, I suppose I naively wish for some vigorous pro-democracy push-back from at least one major side of American political culture.

I dislike Adam Tooze’s characterization of progressive debate in the USA today : “America’s revived left wing … does not doubt the disastrous consequences of the Trump presidency. Yet [for them]… he represents not a historic rupture but a continuity … Trump exposes starkly what the civility of Obama and his administration obscured—the subordination of American democracy to capitalism, patriarchy, and the iniquitous racial order descended from slavery.”

Of course, all this is true enough, on one level. It nonetheless ought to be possible to recognize the failings of Democracy in America, historical and contemporary, and at the same time still celebrate and revive the underlying democratic political energy that has recurrently made it possible for the USA to transcend these failings and move ahead.

“a sense of time passing,” 2019 — by Toronto artist Michael Seward.

No real-world democracy will ever be perfect. Humanity itself is too imperfect. But every serious democracy is always working to make itself more democratic. What has made the United States of America stand out since its Declaration of Independence in 1776 is not the cultivation of some unique version of “capitalism” (or “free market” economics). It is the opportunity at least some sides of American culture (and geography) have recurrently offered increasing shares of the broad mass of the sovereign people — to enjoy a degree of freedom, prosperity, and political participation heretofore largely unknown, for most human beings in most of world history.

Easier to think like this in Canada right now?

“Just the latest in a long string of practical Democracy in America incarnations that go back to 1776.”

The Obama administration from this perspective was not a practitioner of a “civility” that obscured the all too many ways in which democracy in America today is in fact subordinate to “capitalism, patriarchy, and the iniquitous racial order descended from slavery.”

President Obama’s government was just the latest in a long string of practical Democracy in America incarnations that go back to 1776. It was starting to define the latest, new and improved expression of the diverse democratic vision for an increasingly high technological 21st century.

The Trump administration is speaking for the side of the USA today that still fears this new and diverse democratic vision, and wants to return to some mythical past where, as Mr. Moore suggests, “Capitalism is a lot more important than democracy.” Yet in the end, to pursue this reactionary vision is ultimately to abandon the historic American destiny and purpose.

Two further observations from Adam Tooze in the June 6 New York Review of Books may help summarize the argument here.

First, he is almost certainly onto something when he writes : “The scope for a truly internationalist or cosmopolitan politics in the United States is limited.” But this is not what the Obama administration promoted. President Obama was still talking about a Democracy in and of America — albeit one that includes Native Americans, women, and African Americans like he and his wife and children, that reaches out to a new Asian America like his Hawaiian birthplace, and that probably has somewhat more to do with the California which was once part of Mexico than with the legendary Anglo Protestant Middle West.

“the unreliability of an infallible memory,” 2019 — by Toronto artist Michael Seward.

Second, Mr. Tooze suggests in his conclusion that “the most pressing question of the present” is : “Assuming current trends continue, will America accept its relative decline with equanimity?

Yet America’s “relative decline” is only something bound to happen (as the gross domestic product of the much more populous China and perhaps ultimately India too grows and grows), if capitalism actually is “a lot more important than democracy.”

If democracy finally is the crucial American value, the sky for expansion is still vast and much unexplored. (Well … I am in fact a Canadian. And it may be easier to think like this in Canada right now than it is in the USA. I’m not sure at the moment. I’m waiting to see what happens in the Canadian federal election this coming October 21.)

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Ornithology today : looking for light in new dark times?

9 May

Charlie Parker had a vast appetite for all forms of human experience, including food.

TORONTO, CANADA. MAY 9, 12, 2019. “Birdhop” started quite a while ago, as the “culture” (and especially music) companion of a much more political website.

It had some time online as “BIRDHOP — Rediscovering Modern Jazz, 1940–1970.” But then in a more general technological update, it was cast adrift as the political preoccupations of the companion site seemed to grow more urgent.

Now, when the urge to escape from what increasingly seem like potential new political dark times ahead (maybe) finds itself combining with our increasing age, we (or should it just be I?) aspire to some fresh, new cut at Birdhop. (Possibly with half a political edge, but gently, lightly? Too much of politics today is just too mean-spirited.)

Charlie Parker, recording star!

This view of democracy in North America 2019 aspires to somehow fit at least part of the very broad view bequeathed by the late great Charlie Parker, whose nickname was “Bird” — and to whom Birdhop is meant as some kind of tribute, in the age of hip hop and all that … and far beyond.

The end of it all may be yet another imperfect set of notes on the Charles Parker Jr who was born in Kansas City in 1920 and died in New York in 1955.

And this raises the question : why is Charlie Parker so interesting in 2019, even if you are not deeply into either the alto saxophone or the story of modern jazz?

Charlie Parker Quintet at The Royal Roost, 1580 Broadway, New York City, 18 December 1948.”

The shortest answer, I think, is just that Charlie Parker (1920–1955) is at least one of the great antidotes modern American culture has, to the at once destructive and retrogressive fake political philosophy of Donald Trump — who apparently to his own as much as many others’ astonishment is now serving as President of the USA today.

Charlie Parker with Strings — 1949 recordings once thought not really hip, but more recently appreciated by fresh ears.

(In a Canadian province that elected a somewhat Trumpian government with just over 40% of the popular vote last June we also know first hand that the more general problem is not confined to US geography. And see : “Canada Is Going Conservative.” Justin Trudeau’s Liberals may just manage a minority government in this year’s October 21 Canadian federal election, or worse.)

Charlie Parker (l) and his shrewder, more professional colleague in the legendary invention of modern jazz, Dizzy Gillespie (r) at Birdland in New York City, 1950.

One sign of Charlie Parker’s unique cultural power (still largely unappreciated in most versions of mainstream media America?) is that the iconic hard-edged conservative Clint Eastwood (“I tried being reasonable, but I didn’t like it”) felt driven to make a Hollywood biography of Parker in the 1988 movie, “Bird.”

Eastwood himself has been a critic of Obama and a supporter of Trump. And the view of Charlie Parker offered in “Bird”, while respectful in some ways, is too negatively focused on the struggling side of a musical genius addicted to heroin since the age of 15. It underplays Parker’s great artistic and intellectual confidence and warm democratic humanity.

At Apollo Records studio in New York City, c. 1953. The horn line at the right-hand side of the photo includes (left to right) Dexter Gordon on tenor sax, Buck Clayton on trumpet, and Charlie Parker on alto.

Yet if Clint Eastwood was uncomfortable with Barack Obama as an American president, “Bird” at least shows how one iconic conservative supporter of the present-day US Republican party does understand that the unique and inevitably tormented but also buoyant African American experience has made an authentic and unmistakable contribution to American democratic culture in its broadest sense.

At home at 151 Avenue B in Manhattan in Charlie Parker’s later life. “It was really wonderful to walk with Bird,” his stepdaughter Kim (right) has reported. “He was really dignified.”

Clint Eastwood would no doubt not see the “Yardbird Suite” brilliant short life of Charlie Parker from 1920 to 1955 as one ultimate antidote to and even salvation from the hopefully even much, much shorter presidency of Donald Trump, and all its deeper complexities. That understanding may have been pioneered by Jack Kerouac (from a French Canadian family in Lowell, Massachusetts ) in his 1957 novel, On the Road. It is in any case a key article of faith for this aspiring fresh, new cut at a Birdhop website today — as what subsequently appears in this space will at least try to illuminate, over the more immediate future that hopefully lies not too darkly ahead.


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